To date, about 500 genetic diseases have been identified in dogs. In addition to being spontaneous, breed specific and very common in breeds, dog genetic diseases are mostly homologous to human diseases. Thus, considering the dog as a patient, we conduct various research projects aimed at identifying the genetic basis of these diseases common to both species, with a double genetic and therapeutic interest for dogs and the humans.
In dogs, these diseases are much more prevalent than those observed in humans. Indeed, in the latter, a condition with a frequency of 0.1% is considered very common, while in dogs, many hereditary disorders have a prevalence of 1 to 10% in specific breeds. Since human population is very mixed and genetically very heterogeneous, molecular basis of genetic diseases are difficult to explore.
On the other hand, each dog breed is very genetically homogeneous, so if we compare healthy dogs and dogs of the same breed, it is easier to identify the genetic difference (s) responsible for the disease. In addition, genetic analyzes combining several breeds can also be used to understand complex diseases or traits, as illustrated by the study of hair texture (short-haired dachshund, hard-haired dope or long-haired dachshund) (Cadieu et al. , 2009).
In this context, our research consists in identifying the genetic bases of homologous diseases between dogs and human. Ultimately, the objectives are to identify new prognostic markers and new therapeutic targets in diseases related to cancers (sarcomas, melanomas, osteosarcomas, gliomas …), neurosensory disorders (epilepsies, retinitis pigmentosa, insensitivity to pain). ), genodermatoses (ichthyosis and keratoderma), … for mutual benefit for dogs and human.